The development of airport light signals is closely related to the development of aircraft and aviation. Beginning in the mid to late 1930s, some lamps marked the boundaries of the flight field or runway. After 1953, with the advent of large and fast turboprops and jet planes, pilots needed to find tracks farther away, and the continuous increase in air traffic also raised higher requirements for flight safety and flight normality. All these have led to the constant improvement of airport lights in terms of variety, function, structure, and energy consumption.
airport light signals system is composed of 4 main factors, which can be called 4 “C,” namely the configuration, color, light intensity, and effective range.
Configuration refers to the location of the various parts of the system and the distance between the lights; colors are used to indicate the different lighting systems in the airport to convey instructions or information and increase visibility; light intensity is determined by the power of light generated in the viewer’s eyes Yes, the light signal is too weak, the driver will not see it, the light signal is too strong, and it will make the driver feel dizzy, so the intensity of the light must match the surrounding conditions. The valid range refers to the various lighting systems of the airport, which require different working distances and lighting angles due to different functions and different guidance methods. Here are just some superficial views on some aspects of airport lighting configuration.
The level standards and configuration of airport navigation lights are clearly stated in Annex XIV of the Convention on International Civil Aviation. However, different airports have different levels of airports, the number of flights, weather conditions, and locations. The differences in the environment and the supporting facilities of navigation facilities should have some differences in the configuration of the lights. How to save investment and ensure flight safety, and coordinate with many factors at the airport, we need to study carefully And clear questions.
Airport light signals type:
During the approach and landing of the giant airport, the pilot saw the following airport lights in turn:
① Airport lights. Installed in the airport, it emits intense white and green flashes. One for each airport to indicate where the airport is located.
② Identify the beacon. Green flashes intermittently with the prescribed Morse code. When there are several airports in an area, one is set for each airport, and different codes are issued to indicate the difference.
③ Approach lights. Also known as a downlight. According to the runway category, an approach light system consisting of more than a dozen to more than one hundred views helps the pilot align the runway, adjust the attitude of the aircraft, and determine the distance to the runway entrance; sometimes it is also installed in the midline of the approach light system A set of sequential flashes consisting of pulsed xenon lamps.
④ Slope lamp. This is the visual approach light slope indicator system or precision approach path indicator. It consists of multiple lamps that emit red and white colors in a vertical direction with a well-defined beam, helping the pilot to check and correct the aircraft’s entry slope.
⑤ Runway entrance lights. When the runway entrance is at the runway end, the runway entrance light shall be located on a straight line perpendicular to the runway centerline outside the runway end, and as close to the runway end as possible, the distance shall not be greater than 3 m; when the runway entrance is moved inward, the runway entrance light shall be Set at the opening of the inward movement on a straight line perpendicular to the centerline of the runway. The runway entrance lights glow green and form a horizontal line to mark the runway entrance.
⑥ Runway centerline lights. Installed on the runway centerline at a distance of 15 or 30m, emitting white light (red near the end of the runway), marking the runway centerline.
⑦ Grounded with views. It is symmetrically installed in the 900m long runway surface at the landing end of the track, and a total of 180, emitting white light, marking the zone where the landing can be made. ⑧ Runway sidelights. It is installed on both sides of the runway, with a distance of 50 ~ 60m, and emits white light, marking the borders on both sides of the track.
⑨ Runway end lights. There are multiple, mounted at the end of the track, across the track, emitting a red light to mark the end of the track.
⑩ Taxiway centerline lights. It is installed on the taxiway centerline with a distance of 15m, 17.5m, or 30m, and emits a green light to mark the taxiway centerline. If it is changed to red or yellow light, it can form a stoplight or observe the sun.
⑪ Taxiway sidelights. It is installed on both sides of the taxiway, with a distance of less than 60m, and emits blue light, marking the borders on both sides of the taxiway.
There are two types of airport light signals: vertical and horizontal, according to the installation method. There are two types of directional lights and omnidirectional lights according to the light distribution in the space. There are three types of high, medium, and low, according to the light intensity. Airport lights are structurally different from general outdoor luminaires. For example, vertical lamps must not only withstand the tremendous blowing force of the aircraft’s wake but also can be dumped immediately when they are hit by an airplane; flat lamps must be able to withstand the pressure of the plane and the effects of the wind and snow. Due to the unique structural requirements of airport lights, many countries have formulated strict lamp specifications and put them into practice.